September 28, 2022


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A Solventless Aldol Condensation Experiment for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

World Journal of Chemical Training. 2020, eight(3), 104-106. DOI: 10.12691/wjce-eight-3-one


Aldol condensation reactions are routinely applied in organic chemistry teaching labs. In this experiment, we formulated a greener technique for the aldol condensation experiment of the Organic Chemistry II lab at North Carolina State University. To do this, we applied the 12 Rules of Green Chemistry, and altered our latest technique to healthy as lots of of them as feasible. The key tactic applied during this procedure was producing aldol condensation reactions that had been entirely solventless. We at the moment have a technique that Pest Control Surrey will allow for all feasible mixtures of two aldehydes: four-tolualdehyde and four-anisaldehyde, and two ketones: acetophenone and four-methylacetophenone. We have formulated a technique that not only decreases solvent usage, but also qualifies under five other eco-friendly chemistry ideas: avoidance of waste, less hazardous chemical synthesis, reduction of derivatives, incident avoidance, and atom overall economy. This new experimental layout will allow pupils to choose the compounds they would choose to use from a record of out there reagents thus allowing a selected degree of lab personalization.

one. Introduction

Green Chemistry is a quickly escalating willpower aimed at coming up with chemical reactions and products that lessen the creation of hazardous substances. one The twelve ideas of eco-friendly chemistry lay the foundation for this intention and should be utilized at all opportunities to maximize the greenness of the wished-for response. The latest technique of wondering about Green Chemistry was formulated in 1987 from the United Nations Commission on Atmosphere and Progress. This commission defined sustainable development as “…meeting the wants of the present without having compromising the capacity of upcoming generations to meet up with their have wants.” two This commission paved the way to the enhancement of the 12 ideas of eco-friendly chemistry, laid out down below. one

two. Rules of Green Chemistry:

one. Stop Waste

two. Atom Financial system

3. Much less Harmful Synthesis

four. Style Benign Chemicals

five. Benign Solvents & Auxiliaries

6. Style for Power Effectiveness

seven. Use of Renewable Feedstocks

eight. Lower Derivatives

9. Catalysis

10. Style for Degradation

11. Authentic-time Assessment for Pollution Avoidance

12. Inherently Benign Chemistry for Accident Avoidance.

In current many years, the greening of organic chemistry teaching labs has been well underway, with many publications and shows at conferences involving new lab experiments that integrated the ideas of eco-friendly chemistry. 3 From alkene isomerization to reduction of a ketone to oxidation of alcohols, lots of experimental methods have been formulated to change the organic chemistry labs. two Even acylation reactions, these as lidocaine synthesis, have been modified to implement eco-friendly chemistry. four Green Chemistry doesn’t just have software in organic chemistry however, it can apply to nanotechnology and even into industry. five, 6 Introducing the ideas of eco-friendly chemistry into teaching or industrial labs is reported to have lots of rewards over and above just environmental. One particular review observed that integrating eco-friendly chemistry into teaching labs at an introductory collegiate level lead to an maximize in students’ passion for each chemistry and the eco-friendly movement. 6

Aldol condensation reactions have been studied extensively, as they are one of the most substantial normal methods for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds in organic chemistry. seven This response is a popular experiment done in a sophomore level organic chemistry lab. Whilst lots of researchers have aimed to integrate eco-friendly chemistry into the aldol response, they have normally appear with a important downside, these as substantial hazards or substantial waste creation. eight Palleros (2004) posted a complete paper in the Journal of Chemical Training that offered a number of examples of this response. 9 From this, we aimed to develop a functional useful resource to use in an undergraduate teaching lab.

We have been intrigued in the incorporation of eco-friendly experiments in our organic chemistry lab curriculum. 10 In this experiment, modifications have been manufactured to the standard aldol condensation applied in labs on campus, in buy to make it greener. These adjustments end result in a speedier response time (when as opposed to the standard technique), an elimination of the will need for a solvent, a reduction in the volume of waste developed, and a easier response technique. 9, 11 The modifications satisfy six of the twelve ideas of Green Chemistry: avoidance of waste, reduction of derivatives, safer solvents and auxiliaries, safer chemistry for incident avoidance, less hazardous chemical synthesis, and maximization of atom overall economy.

3. Experimental Reagents Applied

The adhering to chemical compounds had been utilized in this experiment: four-tolualdehyde, four-anisaldehyde, four-methylacetophenone, acetophenone, and sodium hydroxide pellets, as well as a 10% aqueous HCl alternative. Reagents had been bought from Sigma-Aldrich and Fisher Scientific and applied without having more purification.

3.two. Process

This technique is penned for all feasible mixtures of the two aldehydes and two ketones formerly outlined in the Reagents Applied portion. Working with a volumetric pipet, .50 mL of the selected aldehyde and .forty mL of the selected ketone had been added to a mortar. Somewhere around .10 g of solid NaOH was added to the response and then applying a pestle, was crushed up in the alternative. The response was ground right up until the formation of a solid was observed. Just after the solid began to form, the combination was allowed to sit for 10 minutes, to ensure completion. After the 10 minutes had handed, two mL of 10% aqueous HCl had been added to neutralize any residual NaOH. This combination was then allowed to sit for an added 10 minutes, right before vacuum filtration was done. The sample was washed with a smaller volume of chilly 90% ethanol.

3.3. Dangers

The use of good own protective equipment, these as eye safety, by researchers was required at all moments in the laboratory. Ethanol was dealt with with warning thanks to flammability. Each aldehydes (four-anisaldehyde and four-tolualdehyde) are air sensitive, so the containers had been lined with parafilm to prevent contamination. In addition to this, the reagents applied are eye, pores and skin, and respiratory irritants and had been dispensed in a fume hood. Applied solvents and filtrate had been disposed of in the organic unwanted liquid substance container, although solid item was disposed of in the organic unwanted solid substance container.

four. Final results and Discussion

This experiment was intended to provide a eco-friendly option to standard aldol condensation reactions in a second semester organic chemistry lab. Introducing a technique that incorporates a number of ideas of eco-friendly chemistry, these as minimized auxiliaries, atom overall economy, and waste reduction, could be useful to pupils. The standard technique requires pupils to merge acetone and acetophenone with a one:one 95% ethanol: 3M sodium hydroxide alternative in an Erlenmeyer flask. The pupils then stir intermittently for fifteen minutes, isolate the item, and recrystallize. This technique leads to minimal yields and impure products (as determined via melting position analysis). 11 The proposed technique will demand pupils to mix one of two aldehydes (four-tolualdehyde or four-anisaldehyde) with one of two ketones (acetophenone or four-methylacetophenone) in the existence of a pellet of sodium hydroxide in a mortar. The pupils then grind the alternative right up until a solid is observed. Upcoming, they use a smaller volume of 10% HCl to neutralize the item, adopted by filtering and washing with chilly 90% ethanol. No recrystallization was vital with these products as they have average to substantial purity based on IR spectroscopy and melting position analysis, with the exception of the combination of anisaldehyde and acetophenone, which did not react.

Desk one displays the a few mixtures of aldehydes and ketones that had been analyzed in this experiment. These mixtures (possibilities one-3) are then as opposed to the standard aldol response done with benzaldehyde and acetone in Desk two.

Desk two down below displays a comparative analysis of the greenness of the two strategies. The comparison was restricted to the 6 ideas of eco-friendly chemistry that the proposed technique improved from the prior technique.

As observed in Desk two, the proposed technique gives lots of eco-friendly rewards when as opposed to the latest one, these as the elimination of solvent, reduction of waste and derivatives, curtailment of hazardous pitfalls, advancement of atom overall economy, and improvement of incident avoidance. An added advantage of the proposed technique is that with the numerous selections and reduction of response time, pupils are able to synthesize far more than one item, thus supplying them far more exercise with the numerous strategies applied. College students also have far more time to evaluate the IR spectra and melting position information to identify the relative purity of the item.

five. Conclusion

The aldol condensation is a really practical response in organic chemistry for its capacity to form carbon-carbon bonds it is also a rather straightforward technique in use in lots of teaching labs. Some latest methods have a tendency to end result in minimal yields and purity. In this experiment, we redesigned this technique to increase the eco-friendly chemistry factor of the response and elevated the range of feasible reagents in buy to give pupils a degree of preference when finishing the experiment. The modifications of the experiment to meet up with the ideas of eco-friendly chemistry resulted in a new technique that not only developed substantial yields and purity, but also eliminated the use of solvents, minimized spinoff formation, minimized chemical pitfalls, elevated atom overall economy, and decreased the chance of mishaps.


We thank the Office of Chemistry at North Carolina State University for economical help of this job.


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Cite this short article:

Typical Style

Theresse M. Robinson, Melinda C. Box, Maria T. Gallardo-Williams. Select Your Possess (Green) Experience: A Solventless Aldol Condensation Experiment for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory. World Journal of Chemical Training. Vol. eight, No. 3, 2020, pp 104-106.

MLA Style

Robinson, Theresse M., Melinda C. Box, and Maria T. Gallardo-Williams. “Select Your Possess (Green) Experience: A Solventless Aldol Condensation Experiment for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory.” World Journal of Chemical Training eight.3 (2020): 104-106.

APA Style

Robinson, T. M. , Box, M. C. , & Gallardo-Williams, M. T. (2020). Select Your Possess (Green) Experience: A Solventless Aldol Condensation Experiment for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory. World Journal of Chemical Training, eight(3), 104-106.

Chicago Style

Robinson, Theresse M., Melinda C. Box, and Maria T. Gallardo-Williams. “Select Your Possess (Green) Experience: A Solventless Aldol Condensation Experiment for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory.” World Journal of Chemical Training eight, no. 3 (2020): 104-106.