May 27, 2022

guruproofreading

Discover your best

COVID-19 and its effects: On the risk of social inequality through digitalization and the loss of trust in three European education systems

Aarhus University AU Educate (2020) AU education, blended learning. Available at: https://educate.au.dk/fokusomraader/blended-learning/ (accessed 11 February 2021).
Google Scholar

Abdelzadeh, A, Zetterberg, P, Ekman, J (2015) Procedural fairness and political trust among young people: Evidence from a panel study on Swedish high school students. Acta Politica 50(3): 253278.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Aksoy, CG, Cabrales, A, Windsteiger, L (2020) COVID-19, trust and solidarity in the EU. EconPol Policy Report 27. Available at: https://www.econpol.eu/publications/policy_report_27 (accessed 3 February 2021).
Google Scholar

Alvesson, M, Spicer, A (2019) Neo-institutional theory and organization studies: A mid-life crisis? Organization Studies 40(2): 199218.
Google Scholar | SAGE Journals | ISI

Bayrakdar, S, Guveli, A (2020) Inequalities in home learning and schools’ provision of distance teaching during school closure of COVID-19 lockdown in the UK. Essex: Institute for Social & Economic Research. Available at: http://repository.essex.ac.uk/27995/ (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

Beaunoyer, E, Dupere, S, Guitton, MJ (2020) COVID-19 and digital inequalities: Reciprocal impacts and mitigation strategies. Computers in Human Behavior 111: 106424.
Google Scholar | Crossref | Medline

Beck, U (1996) Risikogesellschaft. Aufbruch in eine andere Moderne (Risk society. Departure into a different modernity). Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.
Google Scholar

Borgonovi, F, Burns, T (2015) The educational roots of trust. OECD Education Working Papers No. 119. Paris: OECD publishing.
Google Scholar

Bormann, I (submitted) Does research knowledge about social inequality in education matter during the pandemic? Results of a Discourse Analysis in Germany.
Google Scholar

Bormann, I, John, R (2014) Trust in the education system – thoughts on a fragile bridge into the future. European Journal of Futures Research 2 (article number 35).
Google Scholar | Crossref

Bouckaert, G, Van de Walle, S (2003) Quality of public service delivery and trust in government. In: Salminen, A (ed.) Governing Networks: EGPA Yearbook. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp.299318.
Google Scholar

Brandsen, T, Boogers, M, Tops, P (2006) Soft governance, hard consequences: The ambiguous status of unofficial guidelines. Public Administration Review 66(4): 546553.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Brøgger, K (2019) Governing through Standards: the Faceless Masters of Higher Education. The Bologna Process, the EU and the Open Method of Coordination. Dordrecht: Springer.
Google Scholar

Burger, K (2019) The socio-spatial dimension of educational inequality: A comparative European analysis. MPRA paper no. 95309. Available at: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/95309/ (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

Burns, T, Köster, F, Fuster, M (2016) Education governance in action: Lessons from case studies. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation. Paris: OECD.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Cerna, L (2014) Trust: What it is and why it matters for governance and education. OECD Education Working Papers no. 108. Paris: OECD.
Google Scholar

Coleman, JS (1988) Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology 94: 95120.
Google Scholar | Crossref | ISI

Cone, L, Brøgger, K (2020) Soft privatization: Mapping an emerging field of European education governance. Globalization, Societies and Education 18(4): 374390.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Cone, L, Brøgger, K, Berghmans, M, et al. (forthcoming) Pandemic acceleration: Covid-19 and the emergency digitalization of European education. European Educational Research Journal.
Google Scholar

Council of Europe Development Bank (2017) Educational inequality in Europe. Tackling inequalities in Europe: The role of social investment. Paris: Council of Europe Development Bank. Available at: https://coebank.org/en/news-and-publications/ceb-publications/educational-inequality-in-europe/ (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

Creswell, JW, Hanson, WE, Plano Clark, VL, et al. (2007) Qualitative research designs: Selection and implementation. Counseling Psychologist 35(2): 236264.
Google Scholar | SAGE Journals | ISI

Cruz Jesus, F, Vicente, MR, Bacao, F, et al. (2016) The education-related digital divide: An analysis for the EU-28. Computers in Human Behavior 56: 7282.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Czech School Inspectorate (2020a) Tematická zpráva – Vzdělávání na dálku v ZŠ a SŠ 2019 (Thematic report – distance education in primary, lower and upper secondary schools in 2019). Praha: CSI.
Google Scholar

Czech School Inspectorate (2020b) Tematická zpráva – Vzdělávání v mateřských školách v období nouzového stavu. (Thematic report – education in kindergartens during the state of emergency). Praha: CSI.
Google Scholar

Danish Association of Masters and PhDs (2020) Coronakrisens konsekvenser for studerende. Available at: https://dm.dk/politik-og-presse/analyser/coronakrisens-konsekvenser-for-studerende
Google Scholar

Economic Policy Institute (2020) The COVID-19 will explode achievement gaps in education. Available at: https://www.epi.org/blog/the-COVID-19-will-explode-achievement-gaps-in-education/ (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

Ehren, M, Paterson, A, Baxter, J (2020) Accountability and trust: Two sides of the same coin? Journal of Educational Change 21(1): 183213.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Eickelmann, B, Bos, W, Gerick, J, et al. (eds) (2019) Computer- und informationsbezogene Kompetenzen von Schülerinnen und Schülern im zweiten internationalen Vergleich und Kompetenzen im Bereich Computational Thinking (Computer and information-related competencies of students in the second international comparison and competencies in computational thinking). ICILS 2018 # Deutschland. Münster: Waxmann.
Google Scholar

Engzell, P, Frey, A, Verhagen, M (2021) Learning loss due to school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Available at: https://www.pnas.org/content/118/17/e2022376118 (accessed 4 June 2020).
Google Scholar

Eurofound (2020) Living, working and COVID-19. COVID-19 series. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Available at: https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/report/2020/living-working-and-covid-19 (accessed 3 February 2021).
Google Scholar

European Commission (2018) Digital Education Action Plan. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/education/education-in-the-eu/digital-education-action-plan_en (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

European Commission (2019a) Research and innovation for ICT in education. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/research-and-innovation-ict-education (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

European Commission (2019b) The 2018 International Computer and Information Literacy Study – Main findings and implications for education policies in Europe. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/education/resources-and-tools/document-library/the-2018-international-computer-and-information-literacy-study-icils-main-findings-and-implications-for-education-policies-in-europe_en (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

European Commission (2019c) Education and training monitor: Country analysis. Available at: https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/d41a0625-e00e-11e9-9c4e-01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF/source-172582357 (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

European Commission (2021) Eurobarometer interactive. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/index.cfm/Chart/getChart/themeKy/18/groupKy/98 (accessed 5 February 2021).
Google Scholar

European Commission (n.d.a) Council recommendation on common values, inclusive education and the European dimension of teaching. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/education/education-in-the-eu/council-recommendation-on-common-values-inclusive-education-and-the-european-dimension-of-teaching_en (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

European Commission (n.d.b) Digital learning & ICT in education. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/policies/digital-learning-ict-education (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

European Commission (n.d.c) The European digital strategy. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/content/european-digital-strategy (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

Eurostat (2020) Digital economy and society statistics – households and individuals. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Digital_economy_and_society_statistics_-_households_and_individuals#:~:text=By%202019%2C%20the%20share%20of,in%202009%20(55%20%25) (accessed 22 February 2021).
Google Scholar

Flyvbjerg, B (2006) Five misunderstandings about case study research. Qualitative Inquiry 12(2): 219245.
Google Scholar | SAGE Journals | ISI

Forsa Politik- und Sozialforschung GmbH (2020) Das Deutsche Schulbarometer Spezial Corona-Krise: Ergebnisse einer Befragung von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern an allgemeinbildenden Schulen (The German school barometer special corona crisis: Results of a survey of teachers at general education schools). Available at: https://deutsches-schulportal.de/unterricht/das-deutsche-schulbarometer-spezial-corona-krise/ (accessed 26 November 2020)
Google Scholar

Fraillon, J, Ainley, J, Schulz, W, et al. (eds) (2020) Preparing for life in a digital world. IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2018. International report. Cham: Springer.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Freitag, M, Bühlmann, M (2005) Politische Institutionen und die Entwicklung generalisierten Vertrauens. Ein internationaler Vergleich (Political institutions and the development of generalized trust. An international comparison). PVS Politische Vierteljahresschrift 46(4): 575601.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Giddens, A (1990) The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Google Scholar

Green, A, Preston, J (2001) Education and social cohesion: Recentering the debate. Peabody Journal of Education 76(3/4): 247284.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Hardin, R (1998) Trust in government. In: Braithwaite, M, Levi, M (eds) Trust and Governance. Volume 1 in the Russell Sage Foundation Series on Trust. New York: SAGE, pp.928.
Google Scholar

Hardin, R (2002) Trust and Trustworthiness. New York: SAGE.
Google Scholar

Harris, C, Straker, L, Pollock, C (2017) A socioeconomic related ‘digital divide’ exists in how, not if, young people use computers. PLoS ONE 12(3).
Google Scholar | Crossref

Hasselbladh, H, Kallinikos, J (2000) The project of rationalization: A critique and reappraisal of neo-institutionalism in organization studies. Organization Studies 21(4): 697720.
Google Scholar | SAGE Journals | ISI

Helbig, M (2021) Als hätte es Corona nicht gegeben. Bildungspolitische Reaktionen auf Schulschließungen und Distanzunterricht (As if corona didn’t exist. Educational policy reactions to school closures and distance learning). Berlin: WZB Brief Bildung.
Google Scholar

Honneth, A (2012) Erziehung und demokratische Öffentlichkeit (Education and democratic public). Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft 15(3): 429442.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Høyer, HC, Mønness, E (2016) Trust in public institutions – spillover and bandwidth. Journal of Trust Research 6(2): 151166.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Hübener, H, Schmitz, L (2020) Corona-Schulschließungen. Verlieren leistungsschwächere SchülerInnen den Anschluss? (Corona school closures. Are weaker students losing out?). DIW aktuell. Available at: https://www.diw.de/de/diw_01.c.758261.de/publikationen/diw_aktuell/2020_0030/corona-schulschliessungen__verlieren_leistungsschwaechere_schuelerinnen_den_anschluss.html (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

Huber, SG, Helm, C (2020) COVID-19 and schooling: evaluation, assessment and accountability in times of crises – reacting quickly to explore key issues for policy, practice and research with the school barometer. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability 32: 237270.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Hurrelmann, K, Dohmen, D (2020) Das deutsche Schulbarometer. Corona-Krise verstärkt Bildungsungleichheit (The German school barometer. Corona crisis increases educational inequality). Available at: https://deutsches-schulportal.de/expertenstimmen/das-deutsche-schulbarometer-hurrelmann-dohmen-corona-krise-verstaerkt-bildungsungleichheit/ (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

Klijn, E-H (2008) Governance and governance networks in Europe: An assessment of ten years of research on the theme. Public Management Review 10(4): 505525.
Google Scholar | Crossref | ISI

Korbel, V, Munc, M, Prokop, D, et al. (2020) Souvislost sociálního znevýhodnění a vzdělávacích problémů (The connection between social disadvantage and educational problems). PAQ Research. Available at: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1T6ALNPTiEisYozMOG3OgodfvzU4zhSbN/view (accessed 22 February 2021).
Google Scholar

Koch, S, Koch, P (2020) Bjørn Stensaker om krasj-digitaliseringen i norsk høyere utdanning. Forskningspolitikk, audio podcast. Available at: https://www.fpol.no/bjorn-stensaker-om-krasj-digitaliseringen-i-norsk-hoyere-utdanning/?fbclid=IwAR3L92QFycMt6KCWWTeJ7RRWl-FA4_ltOGQ94aBPN8051z3h9nty_zaQIIg
Google Scholar

Kramer, RM (1999) Trust and distrust in organizations: emerging perspectives, enduring questions. Annual Review of Psychology 50: 569598.
Google Scholar | Crossref | Medline | ISI

Krastev, I, Leonard, M (2020) Europe’s pandemic politics: How the virus has changed the public’s worldview. Policy brief. European Council on Foreign Affairs. Available at: https://ecfr.eu/publication/europes_pandemic_politics_how_the_virus_has_changed_the_publics_worldview/ (accessed 3 February 2021).
Google Scholar

Lepsius, MR (2017) Trust in institutions. In: Lepsius, MR, Wendt, C (eds) Max Weber and Institutional Theory, Vol. 45. Cham: Springer, pp.7987.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Maldonado, JE, De Witte, K (2020) The effect of school closures on standardized student test outcomes. KU Leuven. Available at: https://limo.libis.be/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=LIRIAS3189074&context=L&vid=Lirias&search_scope=Lirias&tab=default_tab&lang=en_US&fromSitemap=1 (accessed 4 June 2020)
Google Scholar

Mayer, RC, Davis, JH, Schoorman, FD (1995) An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review 20(3): 709734.
Google Scholar | Crossref | ISI

Meyer, H-D, Rowan, B (1977) Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology 83(2): 340363
Google Scholar | Crossref | ISI

Meyer, H-D, Rowan, B (2006) Institutional analysis and the study of education. In: Meyer, H-D, Rowan, B (eds) The New Institutionalism in Education. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp.114.
Google Scholar

Ministry of Higher Education and Science (2020a) Press release: COVID-19: Higher education students to be sent home. 12 March.
Google Scholar

Ministry of Higher Education and Science (2020b) Press release: The minister welcomes the re-opening of higher education – the students involved will be informed directly by their educational institution. 9 May.
Google Scholar

Ministry of the State of Denmark (2020) Press release: Public announcement from the prime minister. 11 March.
Google Scholar

Misfeldt, M, Jensen, LX, Hvillum, NP, et al. (2020) Evaluation of online emergency teaching spring 2020. Available at: https://www.ind.ku.dk/english/research/university-science-education/publications/?pure=en%2Fpublications%2Fevaluering-af-onlinenoedundervisning-foraar-2020(f5625373-0adf-4815-9762-6183f02b739f)%2Fexport.html (accessed 24 November 2020).
Google Scholar

Neal, TMS, Shockley, E, Schilke, O (2016) The ‘dark side’ of institutional trust. In: Shockley, E, Neal, TMS, PytlikZillig, LM, et al. (eds) Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Trust Cham: Springer International, pp.177191.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Niedlich, S, Kallfaß, A, Pohle, S, et al. (2021) A comprehensive view of trust in education: Conclusions from a systematic literature review. Review of Education 9(1): 124158.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, R. a. E ., May 4 (2020) Bjørn Stensaker om krasj-digitaliseringen i norsk høyere utdanning (Bjørn Stensaker on the crash digitalization of Norwegian higher education). Forskkningspolitikk. Available at: https://www.fpol.no/bjorn-stensaker-om-krasj-digitaliseringen-i-norsk-hoyere-utdanning/?fbclid=IwAR3L92QFycMt6KCWWTeJ7RRWl-FA4_ltOGQ94aBPN8051z3h9nty_zaQIIg.
Google Scholar

North, DC (1990) Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Google Scholar | Crossref

O’Neill, O (2013) Intelligent accountability in education. Oxford Review of Education 39(1): 416.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Oomsels, P, Bouckaert, G (2014) Studying interorganizational trust in public administration. Public Performance & Management Review 37(4): 577604.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2017) Trust and public policy: How better governance can help rebuild public trust. OECD Public Governance Reviews. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264268920-en.
Google Scholar

Pensiero, N, Kelly, T, Bokhove, V (2020) Learning inequalities during the Covid-19 pandemic: how families cope with homeschooling. Southampton: University of Southampton. Available at: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/442619/ (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

People in Need (2020) Výuka na dálku zvětšuje rozdíly mezi školami, tvrdí Člověk v tísni (Distance teaching increases differences among schools, claim People in Need). Available at: https://eurozpravy.cz/domaci/skolstvi/vyuka-na-dalku-zvetsuje-rozdily-mezi-skolami-tvrdi-clovek-v-tisni.70dafd0a/ (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

Pizmony-Levy, O, Bjorklund, P (2018) International assessments of student achievement and public confidence in education: Evidence from a cross-national study. Oxford Review of Education 44(2): 239257.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Powell, WW (2007) The new institutionalism. In: Clegg S and Bailey JR (eds) The International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Google Scholar

Pulham, E, Graham, CR (2018) Comparing K-12 online and blended teaching competencies: a literature review. Distance Education 39(3): 411432.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Putnam, RD (1995) Bowling alone: America’s declining social capital. Journal of Democracy 6(1): 6578.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Rhodes, RAW (2007) Understanding governance: Ten years on. Organization Studies 28(8): 12431264.
Google Scholar | SAGE Journals | ISI

Robbins, BG (2012) Institutional quality and generalized trust: A nonrecursive causal model. Social Indicator Research 107(2): 235258.
Google Scholar | Crossref | ISI

Rodrigues, M, Biagi, F (2017) Digital technologies and learning outcomes of students from low socioeconomic background: An analysis of PISA 2015. JRC Science for Policy Report. Luxembourg: European Union.
Google Scholar

Rothstein, B, Stolle, S (2008) The state and social capital: An institutional theory of generalized trust. Comparative Politics 40(4): 441459.
Google Scholar | Crossref | ISI

Rothstein, B, Uslaner, EM (2005) All for all: Equality, corruption, and social trust. World Politics 58(1): 4172.
Google Scholar | Crossref | ISI

Rowan, B (2006) The new institutionalism and the study of educational organizations: Changing ideas for changing times. In: Meyer, H-D, Rowan, B (eds) The New Institutionalism in Education. Albany: State University of New York, pp. 1533.
Google Scholar

Schlicht, R, Stadelmann-Steffen, I, Freitag, K (2010) Educational inequality in the EU. European Union Politics 11(1): 2959.
Google Scholar | SAGE Journals | ISI

Schreier, M (2014) Qualitative content analysis. In: Flick, U (ed.) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Analysis. Los Angeles: SAGE, pp.170184.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Silova, I, Rappleye, J (2015) Beyond the world culture debate in comparative education: Critiques, alternatives and a noisy conversation. Globalization, Societies and Education 13(1): 17.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Stanistreet, P, Elfert, M, Atchoarena, D (2020) Education in the age of COVID-19: Understanding the consequences. International Review of Education 66: 627633.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Steiner-Khamsi, G (2010) The politics and economics of comparison. Presedential address. Comparative Education Review 54(3): 323342.
Google Scholar | Crossref | ISI

Švaříček, R, Straková, J, Brom, B, et al. (2020) Spolupráce rodiny a školy v době uzavřených základních škol (Family–school co-operation in times of primary and lower secondary school closure). Studia Paedagogica 25(3): 941.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Tenorth, E (2020) Voll digital in die pädagogische Regression (All-digital into pedagogical regression). Available at: https://deutsches-schulportal.de/expertenstimmen/voll-digital-in-die-paedagogische-regression/ (accessed 4 September 2020)
Google Scholar

Tomasik, MJ, Helbling, LA, Moser, U (2020) Educational gains of in-person vs. distance learning in primary and secondary schools: A natural experiment during the COVID-19 pandemic school closures in Switzerland. International Journal of Psychology. Epub ahead of print 24 November 2020. DOI: 10.1002/ijop.12728.
Google Scholar | Crossref | Medline

Tyler, TR (1998) Trust and democratic governance. In: Braithwaite, Levi, M (eds) Trust and Governance. Russell Sage Foundation Series on Trust. New York: SAGE, pp. 269294.
Google Scholar

Uslaner, EM (2003) Trust, democracy and governance: Can government policies influence generalized trust? In: Hooghe, M, Stolle, D (eds) Generating Social Capital: Civil Society and Institutions in Comparative Perspective. London: Palgrave, pp.171191.
Google Scholar | Crossref

Vodafone Foundation (2020) Unter Druck. Die Situation von Eltern und ihren schulpflichtigen Kindern während der Schulschließungen (Under pressure. The situation of parents and their school-age children during school closures). Düsseldorf: Vodafone Stiftung.
Google Scholar

Williamson, B, Hogan, A (2020) Commercialization and privatization in/of education in the context of Covid-19. Bruxelles: Education International Report.
Google Scholar

Wiseman, A, Chase-Mayoral, A (2014) Shifting the discourse on neo-institutional theory in comparative and international education. In: Wiseman A and Anderson E (eds) Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2013. International Perspectives on Education and Society, Vol. 20. Bingley: Emerald, pp. 99126.
Google Scholar | Crossref

World Value Survey (n.d.) Wave 7: 2017–2020. Available at: http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSOnline.jsp (accessed 26 November 2020).
Google Scholar

Yin, RK (2018) Applications of Case Study Research. 6th edn. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Google Scholar

Zucker, LG (1983) Organizations as institutions. Research in the Sociology of Organizations 2: 147.
Google Scholar